Adaptation measures by region and sector

It is now well established that climate change is to be considered as one of the defining challenges of the 21st century. In recent years, the realities of climate change have resulted in unprecedented climatic events on a global scale. However, the nature, severity and frequency of climatic events varies by geographic region. It has been observed and forecasted that the most heavily and negatively impacted regions are and will be those within the global south. This is significant as the impact of such events often can have persistent and devastating effects on the respective economies and further exacerbate the divide between developed and developing countries.

The following table provides an overview on climate change with respect to the level of vulnerability and possible adaptation efforts by several geographic regions. Please note that the highlighted areas/sectors of vulnerability are not exhaustive but rather reflects those most common throughout the respective geographic region.

For a more comprehensive report of all regions please see the following: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg2/

Geographic Region

Highlighted Area/Sector of Vulnerability Adaptation Measures
Africa: climate change has been observed and is forecasted to affect this region primarily by way of changes in extreme temperature and rainfall Agriculture – this sector will be significantly impacted by climate change across the region with the major challenge being that of food security

Health – as a result of climate change current health related illnesses will be exacerbated stemming from undernutrition

·         The introduction of stress tolerant crops

·         Increased small holder access to credit and diversification of income

·         Implementation of early warning systems and vulnerability mapping for targeted intervention

Asia: observed increases in annual temperature in recent decades Water Scarcity – due to changes in precipitation and insufficient storage capacities

Heat Related Mortality – owing to ill-suited designs of buildings

·         Development of water saving technology

·         Introduction of drought resistant crops

·         Heat health warning systems and improved urban planning to mitigate the effects of heat

Small Islands: sea level rise, tropical and extra tropical cyclones and changing rainfall patterns Fisheries Industry is forecasted to be significantly affected due to damage to the habitat of fish resulting in the loss of livelihoods

Displacement of Communities – coastal villages are highly susceptible to the effects of rising sea levels which may ultimately result in the abandonment of homes

·         Maintenance and enhancement of ecosystem functions

·         Management and restoration of costal landforms and ecosystems and the creation and implementation of appropriate building codes for settlement

Europe: observed and projected changes in temperature, rainfall and sea level rise (specifically related to coastal areas) Economic and Productive losses due to heat extremes – this is primarily driven by reduced crop production and decreased labour productivity

Water Reduction – due to declines in availability of water from current sources and increased demand

·         Heat health warning systems and improved urban planning to mitigate the effects of heat and the development of crop related insurance to mitigate the effects of variation in yields

·         Adoption of more water -efficient technologies and best practices

Central and South America: overall changes in precipitation and temperature with increased variability of climate and extreme weather events Agriculture – decreased food production and food quality

Health ­– Spread of vector borne diseases

·         The introduction of stress tolerant crops

·         Development of early warning systems for diseases control and mitigation

North America: increased occurrences of severe hot weather events and increased heavy precipitation Heat Related Mortality – ill suited building designs and insufficient cooling mechanisms

Urban flooding – caused by sea level rise and extreme precipitation

·         Community and household level adaptions such as cooling centres and greening

·         Management of urban drainage and conservation of wetlands including mangroves